What is filesystem?

A system of organizing files in an operating system in which all files are stored in a single directory.

A filesystem is the methods and data structures that an operating system uses to keep track of files on a disk or partition; that is, the way the files are organized on the disk.

Thus, one might say “I have two filesystems” meaning one has two partitions on which one stores files, or that one is using the “extended filesystem”, meaning the type of the filesystem.

 

 Partition layout and types

There are two kinds of major partitions on a Linux system:

  • data partition: normal Linux system data, including the root partition containing all the data to start up and run the system; and
  • swap partition: expansion of the computer’s physical memory, extra memory on hard disk.