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GARP Generic Attribute Registration Protocol

GARP (Generic Attribute Registration Protocol) is a local area network (LAN) protocolthat defines procedures by which end stations and switches can register and de-register attributes, such as network identifiers or addresses, with each other. Every end station and switch thus has a record, or list, of all the other end stations and switches that can  Full Article…

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How BGP works

You need to understand that what follows is a gross simplification of BGP so you have to take it that way. BGP is actually very similar to RIP. In its core, just like RIP, it learns routes from different neighbors (in BGP called peers), adds its own routes, decides what path toward a particular destination  Full Article…

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Understanding RIP Routing

RIP, like all routing protocols, is designed to disseminate network information pertinent to routers. At the most basic level, routers need to know what networks are reachable and how far away they are. RIP does this, and it’s still widely used today. Remember, we said that RIP is a distance-vector protocol. The distance part is  Full Article…

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Understanding OSPF Routing

Open Shortest Path First is a robust link-state interior gateway protocol (IGP). People use OSPF when they discover that RIP just isn’t going to work for their larger network, or when they need very fast convergence. To understand the design needs for areas in OSPF, let’s start by discussing how OSPF works. There’s some terminology  Full Article…

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BGP Routing

The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the routing protocol of the Internet, used to route traffic across the Internet.   BGP is the path-vector protocol that provides routing information for autonomous systems on the Internet via its AS-Path attribute. BGP is a Layer 4 protocol that sits on top of TCP. It is much simpler  Full Article…

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MPLS

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism in high-performance telecommunications networks that directs data from one network node to the next based on short path labels rather than long network addresses, avoiding complex lookups in a routing table.   MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching) is and why allowing packets to be forwarded at the Layer 2  Full Article…

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RIP (Routing Information Protocol)

RIP – Routing Information Protocol How to find the best path to find the destination   Distance Vector Protocol Periodic Updates every 30 seconds Possible loops in a complex topology Uses Hop Count as metric (how many router I have  to pass to find the destination) Maximum Hop Count is 15 Administrative Distance is 120  Full Article…

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ARP – Address Resolution Protocol

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol for mapping an Internet Protocol address (IP address) to a physical machine address that is recognized in the local network. The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a telecommunication protocol used for resolution of network layer addresses into link layer addresses the address resolution protocol is one of the  Full Article…

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Understanding Subnetting

Subnetting allows you to create multiple logical networks that exist within a single Class A, B, or C network. If you do not subnet, you are only able to use one network from your Class A, B, or C network, which is unrealistic. Each data link on a network must have a unique network ID,  Full Article…

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Network Masks

A network mask helps you know which portion of the address identifies the network and which portion of the address identifies the node. Class A, B, and C networks have default masks, also known as natural masks, as shown here: Class A: 255.0.0.0 Class B: 255.255.0.0 Class C: 255.255.255.0 An IP address on a Class  Full Article…

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Understanding IP Addresses

An IP address is an address used in order to uniquely identify a device on an IP network. The address is made up of 32 binary bits, which can be divisible into a network portion and host portion with the help of a subnet mask. The 32 binary bits are broken into four octets (1  Full Article…

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IP Addresses

This address, known as “IP address”, as “IP number”, or merely as “IP” is a code made up of numbers separated by three dots that identifies a particular computer on the Internet. These addresses are actually 32-bit binary numbers, consisting of the two subaddresses (identifiers) mentioned above which, respectively, identify the network and the host  Full Article…

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Wireshark Tutorial – The 3 Way Handshake

  how TCP establishes the session type URL and prese ENTER computer send information from aplication layer down to the transport layer Transport layer is going to create a segment call SYN SYN build this session with the web server – the way we do that is we send it out on a destination port  Full Article…

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TCP 3 Way Handshake – TCP/IP 101

TCP 3 Way Handshake – TCP/IP 101 Client try to resolve the name  -DNS -take destination IP server and netmask to determine if is local or remote host. If local connect directly If remote connect first to gateway 1. initial SYN pack..hey server is my client…are u there? I like to get in port 80.  Full Article…

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TCP Headers with SYN and FIN Flags Set

Both the SYN and FIN control flags are not normally set in the same TCP segment header. The SYN flag synchronizes sequence numbers to initiate a TCP connection. The FIN flag indicates the end of data transmission to finish a TCP connection. Their purposes are mutually exclusive. A TCP header with the SYN and FIN  Full Article…

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Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model

In Seven Layers of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model lesson, you will learn about the seven layers of OSI model and their functions If network communications need to happen with out any trouble, many problems must be solved. Coordinating all these problems are so complex and not easy to manage. To make these tasks smooth,  Full Article…

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Comparison between TCP/IP and OSI

Like OSI network model, TCP/IP also has a network model. TCP/IP was on the path of development when the OSI standard was published and there was interaction between the designers of OSI and TCP/IP standards. The TCP/IP model is not same as OSI model. OSI is a seven-layered standard, but TCP/IP is a four layered  Full Article…

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TCP / IP Reference

  Data Link Layer ARP/RARP Address Resolution Protocol/Reverse Address DCAP Data Link Switching Client Access Protocol Network Layer DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol DVMRP Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol ICMP/ICMPv6 Internet Control Message Protocol IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol IP Internet Protocol version 4 IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6 MARS Multicast Address Resolution Server PIM  Full Article…

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Understanding TCP/UDP Port Functions

If you can correctly answer these questions before going through this section, save time by skimming the Exam Alerts in this section and then complete the Cram Quiz at the end of the section. What is the default port used by NTP? True or False: Although FTP is a TCP-based protocol, TFTP uses UDP. Answers  Full Article…

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TCP/IP Protocol Fundamentals Explained with a Diagram

TCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITE Communications between computers on a network is done through protocol suits. The most widely used and most widely available protocol suite is TCP/IP protocol suite. A protocol suit consists of a layered architecture where each layer depicts some functionality which can be carried out by a protocol. Each layer usually has more  Full Article…

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UDP and TCP: Comparison of Transport Protocols

Internet uses TCP/IP Protocol which has 4 layers Host To Network Layer, Internet Layer, Transport Layer And Application Layer.   UDP and TCP are part of Transport Layer Physical Layer and Data Link layer of OSI Model combines to become Host To Network Layer in TCP/IP moodel. Segment -Message with source port and destination port  Full Article…

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BGP Border Gateway Protocol

BGP – Border Gateway Protocol is an exterior gateway protocol (EGP), which means that it performs routing between multiple autonomous systems or domains and exchanges routing and reachability information with other BGP systems. Very large private IP networks use BGP internally. Another reason to use BGP is multihoming a network for better redundancy, either to  Full Article…

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OSPF Open Shortest Path First

OSPF is an interior gateway protocol that routes Internet Protocol (IP) packets solely within a single routing domain (autonomous system). OSPF is a complex link-state routing protocol. Link-state routing protocols generate routing updates only when a change occurs in the network topology.When a link changes state, the device that detected the change creates a link-state  Full Article…

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