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What is MUTEX ?

In computer programming, a mutex is a program object that allows multiple program threads to share the same resource, such as file access, but not simultaneously. When a program is started, a mutex is created with a unique name.

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What are the different process states?

A process goes through a series of discrete process states. New State: The process being created. Running State: A process is said to be running if it has the CPU, that is, process actually using the CPU at that particular instant. Blocked (or waiting) State: A process is said to be blocked if it is  Full Article…

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Explain Memory Partitioning, Paging, Segmentation.

MEMORY PARTITIONING– means partitioning the memory into small units or blocks & load the data or code into the blocks, & use this data & code when required by a process. PAGING: Paging memory allocation algorithms divide computer memory into small partitions, and allocates memory using a page as the smallest building block. SEGMENTATION: Segmentation means that  Full Article…

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What is virtual memory?

Virtual memory is hardware technique where the system appears to have more memory that it actually does. This is done by time-sharing, the physical memory and storage parts of the memory one disk when they are not actively being used.

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Why paging is used?

Paging is solution to external fragmentation problem which is to permit the logical address space of a process to be noncontiguous, thus allowing a process to be allocating physical memory wherever the latter is available.

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What is the cause of thrashing? How does the system detect thrashing? Once it detects thrashing, what can the system do to eliminate this problem?

Thrashing is caused by under allocation of the minimum number of pages required by a process, forcing it to continuously page fault. The system can detect thrashing by evaluating the level of CPU utilization as compared to the level of multiprogramming. It can be eliminated by reducing the level of multiprogramming.

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What is multi tasking, multi programming, multi threading? – Multi programming:

Multi programming: Multiprogramming is the technique of running several programs at a time using timesharing. It allows a computer to do several things at the same time. Multiprogramming creates logical parallelism. The concept of multiprogramming is that the operating system keeps several jobs in memory simultaneously. The operating system selects a job from the job  Full Article…

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What is hard disk and what is its purpose?

Hard disk is the secondary storage device, which holds the data in bulk, and it holds the data on the magnetic medium of the disk.Hard disks have a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium, the magnetic medium can be easily erased and rewritten, and a typical desktop machine will have a hard disk with  Full Article…

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What is fragmentation? Different types of fragmentation? –

Fragmentation occurs in a dynamic memory allocation system when many of the free blocks are too small to satisfy any request. External Fragmentation: External Fragmentation happens when a dynamic memory allocation algorithm allocates some memory and a small piece is left over that cannot be effectively used. If too much external fragmentation occurs, the amount  Full Article…

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What is Dispatcher?

Dispatcher module gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short-term scheduler; this involves: Switching context, Switching to user mode, Jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart that program, dispatch latency – time it takes for the dispatcher to stop one process and start another running.

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What is DRAM? In which form does it store data?

DRAM is not the best, but it’s cheap, does the job, and is available almost everywhere you look. DRAM data resides in a cell made of a capacitor and a transistor. The capacitor tends to lose data unless it’s recharged every couple of milliseconds, and this recharging tends to slow down the performance of DRAM  Full Article…

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What is Context Switch?

Switching the CPU to another process requires saving the state of the old process and loading the saved state for the new process. This task is known as a context switch. Context-switch time is pure overhead, because the system does no useful work while switching. Its speed varies from machine to machine, depending on the  Full Article…

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What is CPU Scheduler?

Selects from among the processes in memory that are ready to execute, and allocates the CPU to one of them. CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a process: 1.Switches from running to waiting state. 2.Switches from running to ready state. 3.Switches from waiting to ready. 4.Terminates. Scheduling under 1 and 4 is non-preemptive. All  Full Article…

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What is cache memory?

Cache memory is random access memory (RAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular RAM. As the microprocessor processes data, it looks first in the cache memory and if it finds the data there (from a previous reading of data), it does not have to do the more time-consuming  Full Article…

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What is a Real-Time System?

A real time process is a process that must respond to the events within a certain time period. A real time operating system is an operating system that can run real time processes successfully.

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What are the basic functions of an operating system?

Operating system controls and coordinates the use of the hardware among the various applications programs for various uses. Operating system acts as resource allocator and manager. Since there are many possibly conflicting requests for resources the operating system must decide which requests are allocated resources to operating the computer system efficiently and fairly. Also operating  Full Article…

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