Becoming the superuser for a short while

It is often useful to become the superuser to perform important system administration tasks, but as you have been warned (and not just by me!), you should not stay logged on as the superuser. In most distributions, there is a program that can give you temporary access to the superuser’s privileges. This program is called su(short for substitute user) and can be used in those cases when you need to be the superuser for a small number of tasks. To become the superuser, simply type the su command. You will be prompted for the superuser’s password:

[me@linuxbox me]$ su
Password:
[root@linuxbox me]#

After executing the su command, you have a new shell session as the superuser. To exit the superuser session, type exit and you will return to your previous session.

In some distributions, most notably Ubuntu, an alternate method is used. Rather than using su, these systems employ the sudo command instead. With sudo, one or more users are granted superuser privileges on an as needed basis. To execute a command as the superuser, the desired command is simply preceeded with thesudo command. After the command is entered, the user is prompted for the user’s password rather than the superuser’s:

[me@linuxbox me]$ sudo some_command
Password:
[me@linuxbox me]$

Changing file ownership

You can change the owner of a file by using the chown command. Here’s an example: Suppose I wanted to change the owner of some_file from “me” to “you”. I could:

[me@linuxbox me]$ su
Password:
[root@linuxbox me]# chown you some_file
[root@linuxbox me]# exit
[me@linuxbox me]$

Notice that in order to change the owner of a file, you must be the superuser. To do this, our example employed the su command, then we executed chown, and finally we typed exit to return to our previous session.

chown works the same way on directories as it does on files.

Changing group ownership

The group ownership of a file or directory may be changed with chgrp. This command is used like this:

[me@linuxbox me]$ chgrp new_group some_file

In the example above, we changed the group ownership of some_file from its previous group to “new_group”. You must be the owner of the file or directory to perform a chgrp.

source linuxcommand.org/lts0070.php