Attenuation, or transmission loss, in fiber optic cables, beyond the intrinsic absorption of the fiber material, can be due to which of the following?

  • Density fluctuations on impurities in the cable core
  • Misaligned connections
  • Bends in the cable
  • All of the above (Correct)

Several factors can cause transmission loss, or attenuation, in fiber optic cables. The glass molecules in the fiber core may absorb a very small amount of light energy. The manufacturing process may cause density fluctuations or leave impurities or air bubbles in the fiber core. When light travels across a fiber connection, loss can occur because of the differences in the refractive index between the core and the air in the gap between the cores being coupled. Loss can occur with connections that aren’t properly aligned or when the core diameters are mismatched. If fiber cables are bent too sharply, loss can occur.