01.0.1 Environment Variables, Aliases And Shell Configuration Files

01.0.1 Environment Variables, Aliases And Shell Configuration Files

customize comand prompt

customize comand prompt

global configuration file is inside /etc

/etc/ bash.bashrc

apply to anyuser

 

export EDITOR=”vi”

export EDITOR=”nano”

echo $EDITOR

echo $PS1

export PS1=”\[\u@awesome]$”

 

global configuration file inside etc/

vi  bash.basrc

 

01.02. Modifying Bash Shell Configuration Files

or profile.d/

bash folder/

ls | grep bash

 

/var/log

alias syslog=”tail -f /var/log/syslog”

add lin in bash.basrc

export HELLO =”this is tyou hellol variable”

 

cd /etc/skel

 

/etc/profile.d

 

01.03. Learn How To Change The Bash Prompt

variable are key sensitive

export PS1=”SMAIL”

/var/mail/user

export PS1=”hello \u@\h”

 

 

01.03. Learn How To Change The Bash Prompt

 

Screen Shot 2016-09-01 at 12.04.09

 

Screen Shot 2016-09-01 at 12.05.13

export PS1=”hello \u@\h your cuurent directory is \w”

is time \T    or \t    \D  date

you have currently have \j  running

\j jobs

 

color

\e[ here put the color code  <— Idicate of begingi of color prompt

export PS1=”\e[0; u@\h \$””

export PS1=”\e[1;30m\]; u@\h \$”

1 represent dark

export PS1=”\e[1;30m\]; u@\h \$”

export PS1=”\e[34\e[m  u@\h \$”

01.04. Bash Lists

 

man bash

&

&&

||

cat command

#!/bin/bash

echo”First command”

exit 1

 

cant command2

#!/bin/bash

echo ” second command”

exit 0

 

ls &&  cd /etc

./command2 && ./command

command-2-command

 

./command  ||  ./command2

 

|| only the first command failes

; move on to next command

 

cd; ls; cd /etc; ls

 

cd &

02.01. In

stalling MySQL on Ubuntu And CentOS

Screen Shot 2016-09-01 at 12.55.27

/  Connect to mysql

 

set new password mysql

set-new-password-mysql

mysql -uroot -p

password:

show database

Screen Shot 2016-09-01 at 13.02.02

mysql > select

 

use mydb

create table mydb.customers (‘id’ init(11)) NOT NULL,  ‘first_name’  varchar(20) NOT NULL, ‘last_name’ varchar(20) NOT NULL)

Screen Shot 2016-09-01 at 13.27.47

 

show table;

INSERT INTO customers (id,first_name,last_name) VALUE (1,”jeff”,”jefferson”);

CREATE USER ‘jeff’@’localhost’ IDENTIFY BY ‘test’;

SELECT  user,host FROM mysql.user;

Screen Shot 2016-09-01 at 13.55.29

 

GRANT ALL PRIVILAGES ON mydb.customers TO ‘jeff’@’localhost’;

drop database mydb;

 

import data dump sql

Screen Shot 2016-09-01 at 14.07.05

 

mysqldump -uroot -p storedbname > backup_store.sql

mysql -uroot -p storedbname < backup_store.sql

 

useradd -M testuser  ( without home directory)

/skel/  directory with template for users

/etc/skel/  <— everthing inside will show on the new user home

/etc/passwd

/etc/shadow file  for with encrypted password

 

mysqldump -uroot -p  databasename > backupfiledb.sql

mysql -uroot -p databasename < filewithbackup.sq;

 

03.01. Adding Linux Users Using useradd, Customization And Flags

 

useradd nameofuser

userdel -r nameofuser

-d

-e

useradd -M anthony

-g  primary group

-f   password expired

-f 0  luck after password expired

-k  skel  directory

 

useradd  test_user -k /home/test_skel/

03.02. Useradd Examples

useradd-default-script-file

 

remove user

in passwd and shadow   file

removing the user line and the user no longer exist

 

03.03. Modifying User Accounts

usermod

usermod

 

03.04. Removing User Accounts In Linux

userdel -r username

userdel

 

03.05. Managing Groups In Linux

groupadd -r

groupadd -f  force group creation even exist

 

/etc

cat group

groupdel

groupmod -g       specify new group id

groupmod -n  mynewgroupname  mygroup2

 

03.06. System Accounts And Special Purpose Accounts

cat passwd

system-accounts-and-special-purpose-accounts

system account

less 500 consider system account

or 1000 depends of the distribution

 

03.07. Password Policy With The chage Command

chage command

 

03.08. Password Aging

sudo apt-get install chage

password-aging

sudo chage -E “2016-04-20” testuser

 

05.01. Lesson Hello Bash! Our First Bash Script

vi myscript

#!/bin/bashpwdcd /etc

chmod u+x myscript

 

backup script

#!/bin/bash
tar -cvzf  backup.tar.gz /home/user
cp $HOME/backup.tar.gz /home/user/backupecho Backup is completed

05.02. Running Basic Commands Inside A Bash Script

vi findlist

#!/bin/bash

#list all contents in a directory and write the ouptut to a file name  dir_list.txt

ls >> dir_list.txt

 

chmod u+x findlist

 

vi findlist2

#!/bin/bash
#list all contents in a directory and write the ouptut to a file name  dir_list.txt
location=$1filname=$2if [ -z "$location"  ]thenecho "Please provide location"exitfiif [ -z "$filename" ]thenecho "Please provide filename "
exit
fi

ls $location > $filename
echo "Script is completed and has indexed $location"echo "########"echo "Displaying contents of dir_lits.txtecho "########"
cat $fiename

chmod u+x findlist2

findlist2 /var/log  mylist.txt

05.03. Bash Variables and Script Arguments

 

vi testscript
#!/bin/bash
echo $HOME
echo $USER
variable=hello
echo $variable
echo " "
echo " "
echo $variable2345



vi pinhead
#!/bin/bash

name=$1
username=$2
if (( $# == 0))     comment ## if no arguments display all this
then
echo "##############################"
echo "pinehead [arg1] [arg2]"
echo "arg1 is your name"
echo "arg2 is your username"
exit
fi

var1=”Your name is ${name} and your userbame is ${username}”

‘echo ${var1} >> yourname.txt’           comment ##>> append to file

 

 

 

06.01. Ifconfig-ifup-ifdown

ifconfig
sudo ifconfig eth0 down

sudo ifconfig eth0 up

lo – loopback adapter
sudo ifdown – – all     bring down all interfaces also loopback adaptor

sudo ifconfig lo up

 

lo – is your loopback adapter

Ubuntu

cd /etc/network
cat interface

auto loiface lo inet loopback

 

sudo vim /etc/network/interfaces

iface eth0 inet static
address 192.168.1.17
netmask 255.255.255.0
gateway 192.168.1.1

 

sudo /etc/init.d/network

sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart

sudo su-
cd /etc/network
vim interfaces

auto lo
 iface lo inet loopback
 auto eth0
 iface eth0 inet static
 address 192.168.1.17
 netmask 255.255.255.0
 gateway 192.168.1.1
 network 192.168.1.0
 broadcast 192.168.1.255
 dns-nameservers 192.168.1.195

sudo reboot

ifconfig

sudo ifconfig eth0 -promisc

ssh  user@CENTOS

ifconfig
ls -la /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts
ifconfig
ls -al ifcfg*

sudo vim ifcfg-eth0

ls -al /etc/init.d/net*

sudo /etc/init.d/network restart
reboot

 

6.02. Linux Routing Using Route Command

route

route

netstat -rn

netstat-rn

sudo route add default gw 192.168.1.1

sudo-route-add-default-gw-192-168-1-1

route

add a host
sudo route add -host google.com reject

sudo-route-add-host-google-com-reject

sudo route -host 192.168.1.3 reject

route

route-reject

route -n

sudo route del default gw 192.168.1.1.

sudo-route-del-default-gw-192-168-1-1

sudo route add -net 74.125.227.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.1.1

sudo route del -net   74.125.227.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.1.1

 

06.03. Using Linux Ping

echo
port 7

ifconfig

ifconfig-ping-loopback

ping -A google.com   doesn’t wait for echo replay from every packet

ping -c 10 google.com   count 10

sudo ping -f 192.168.1.1  sending a lot a ping request

ping -f -i  2  192.168.1.1       2 seconds

ping -n google.com   without name resolution

ping -q google.com   quiet response

ping -c 10 -q google.com > results.txt

sudo ping -f -i .5 -c  100 192.168.1.1. > results.txt

0.5 half seconds

 

06.04. -etc-resolv.conf

resolv.conf  configuration dns  search domains, active directory domains  name resolutions

netstat -rn

route -n

ping goole.com

cat /etc/resolv.conf

sudo vim /etc/resolv.conf

nameserver 8.8.8.8   <– google dns

/etc/resolvconf
ls -al
cd resolv.conf.d/

cat base
cat head

etc/resolvconf/resolv.conf.d/

vim base
namserver 192.168.1.195

cat  head && cat base

cat /etc/resolv.conf

sudo resolvconf -u   <–can be dynamic rebuild anytime

/etc/resolvconf/resolv.conf.d/    vi base
base
nameserver 192.168.1.195
nameserver 8.8.8.8
domain  test.local

/etc/resolvconf/resolv.conf.d/    vi head
# this was created during tutorial

sudo resolvconf -u

ping  test.local

 

06.05. -etc-hosts

/etc/hosts

cat hosts

cat-hosts

nslookup google.com

 

06.06. -etc-hostname

more /etc/issue
cat hostname

centos

cat /etc/issue
cd /etc/sysconfig
cat network

cat /etc/hosts

hostname

temporary assign name
hostname temporaryname

until reboot the system

uname -a

 

. 06.06. -etc-hostname

more /etc/issue

cat /etc/hosts

etc-hostname

 

uname -a

 

06.07. -etc-nsswitch.conf

/etc/nsswitch.conf

etc-nsswitch-conf
hosts: dns file mdns

sudo /etc/init.d/network

passwd:
group:
shadow:

netgroup:

we install Name Service Cache Daemon

sudo apt-get install nscd

ls -al /etc/init.d/nscd  restart

all base on authentication system

 

06.08. IPv4

ip4

 

class structure

class-structure

 

ip-address

 

v

06.10. IPv4 Network Range Calculation

 

Subnetting is the process of partitioning a network in to smaller independent networks. The resulting smaller networks are called subnets.

Subnetting is good practice in network design.

 

 

Host/Subnet Quantities Table

Class B                   Effective  Effective
# bits        Mask         Subnets     Hosts
-------  ---------------  ---------  ---------
  1      255.255.128.0           2     32766
  2      255.255.192.0           4     16382
  3      255.255.224.0           8      8190
  4      255.255.240.0          16      4094
  5      255.255.248.0          32      2046
  6      255.255.252.0          64      1022
  7      255.255.254.0         128       510
  8      255.255.255.0         256       254
  9      255.255.255.128       512       126
  10     255.255.255.192      1024        62
  11     255.255.255.224      2048        30
  12     255.255.255.240      4096        14
  13     255.255.255.248      8192         6
  14     255.255.255.252     16384         2

Class C                   Effective  Effective
# bits        Mask         Subnets     Hosts
-------  ---------------  ---------  ---------
  1      255.255.255.128      2        126 
  2      255.255.255.192      4         62
  3      255.255.255.224      8         30
  4      255.255.255.240     16         14
  5      255.255.255.248     32          6
  6      255.255.255.252     64          2

  
subnetting-networks

Prefix Format Decimal Available Host Addresses
/8 255.0.0.0 16777214
/9 255.128.0.0 8388606
/10 255.192.0.0 4194302
/11 255.224.0.0 2097150
/12 255.240.0.0 1048574
/13 255.248.0.0 524286
/14 255.252.0.0 262142
/15 255.254.0.0 131070
/16 255.255.0.0 65534
/17 255.255.128.0 32766
/18 255.255.192.0 16382
/19 255.255.224.0 8190
/20 255.255.240.0 4094
/21 255.255.248.0 2046
/22 255.255.252.0 1022
/23 255.255.254.0 510
/24 255.255.255.0 254
/25 255.255.255.128 126
/26 255.255.255.192 62
/27 255.255.255.224 30
/28 255.255.255.240 14
/29 255.255.255.248 6
/30 255.255.255.252 2

 

07.01. Understanding System Cron
crontab -e   <–edit
crontab -l

crontab

/etc

vi crontab

cd cron.daily

cron.allow  < all user oin system  deny access to cron except  user present in cron.allow

tail -f  /var/log/cron     show every cron oin the systems and when runn’s

 

07.02. Understanding User Cron

configuration file

/var/spool/cron

var-spool-cron

 

 

07.03. Cron User Permissions

cron.deny

cron.allow

crontab

 

deny all user for cron tab

rm cron.deny

and create cron.allow

all user on the system deny access to cron except for those  allowed

 

07.04. Creating Cron Jobs By Example

crontab -e

every 2 minutes

*/2 * * * *  date >> minutes .txt

tail -f /var/log/cron

cron-log

 

07.05. Using The AT utility.mp4

at  schedule a task one time some time in future  – one event

atq  <— at queue comand list all job in queue
atrm <— remove at from queue

atrm 5  number of the job

at now +1 minute
at> /echo.sh

at noon
at teatime   is 4pm

at-command

 

atrm

atq

 

 

08.01. Triple Tools.mp4

sudo apt-get install clamav
sudo service clamav-daemon start

sudo freshclam

sudo service clamav-daemon start

clamscan -r /home

 

sudo apt-get install chkrootkit

sudo  chkrootkit -x | less

 

sudo apt-get install lsat    <— utility for security concern for different module application permission

sudo cat lsat.out

sudo lsat -o custom.out -m debian -x modules.exclude^C

vim modules.exclude

tail custome.out

tail  lsat.html

 

08.02. Securing User Accounts with John the Ripper

sudo apt-get install john john-data

download.openwall.net/pub/wordlists   all.gz

john -users: -testuser -wordlist:all password.list

 

08.03. Using nmap And Exploring Your Network
sudo apt-get install nmap sysstat

sudo nmap localhost
sudo nmap -p1-80 localhost

sudo nmap -p22,23,80,443,389,3489,400 localhost

sudo nmap 192.168.1.0/24

sudo nmap -sP 192.168.1.0/24 > results.txt

cat results.txt | grep 192.168.1

sudo nmpa 192.168.1.250

sudo nmap -p1-340 -sV 192.168.1.250

sudo nmap -O 192.168.1.250

sudo nmap -oA scanresults.txt 192.168.1.250

cat scanresults.txtgnmap | cut -d” ” -f2 | grep ^[0-9] > newinput.txt

sudo nmap -vv -oA scanresults.txt 192.168.1..250

 

08.04. Wireshark

sudo apt-get install wireshark

wireshark &

 

08.05. Introduction To IPTables

ubuntu
ls -al /etc/init.d/ip*
which ufw

ubuntu

iptiable

 

centos

iptable-centos

sudo service iptable start

sudi service iptable stop

sudo iptable -L

iptable-centos-l

sudo ufw enable  <–enable firewall

sudo-ufw-enable

sudo iptable -L

sudo-iptable-l-ubuntu

sudo iptable -P INPUT DROP
sudo iptable -P OUTPUT DROP
sudo iptable -P FORWARD DROP
ifconfig

ssh -l user iphost

enable ssh

sudo iptables -A INPUT -p tcp –dport 22 -j ACCEPT

sudo iptables -A OUTPUT-p tcp –sport 22 -j ACCEPT

sudo iptable -L

iptables-verify-enable-ssh-port

ls -al /var/log/ufw.log

centos
ls -al /etc/init.d/ip*

sudo service iptables start

 

08.06. Good Old Netstat

netstat -i  interface information activ

netstat -rn

netstat-rn

netstat -a  | grep

netstat -uta    utp

netstat -aute    all utp tcp and extended information

netstat -lt   listing application

netstat-lt-application

netstat -s  summary

 

netstat -pt     program information

netstat -t

netstat -c  running every few seconds

netstat  -r     routing information

netstat  -ap | grep ssh   lista ll application and port running on system

netstat -an | grep ‘:80’

netstat-an-grep-port-80

netstat –tcp –listening –programs

 

netstat-tcp-listening-programs

netstat –udp –listening

 

08.07. Using IPTraf

sudo apt-get install iptraf rrdtool     ( rrd database to colet is not necesary for iptraf)

iptraf

sudo iptraf -s eth0 -B &   RUNNING IN BACKGROUND

sudo-iptraf-s-eth0-b-running-in-background

ps aux | grep iptraf

cd /var/log/iptraf

tail  tcp_udp_services-eth0.log

 

08.08. Finding SUID and GUID Files and Directories

SUID – allows to run run access privilege files as  yourself

find / -user root -perm -4000 -print

find-user-root-perm-4000-print

GUID
find / -group root -perm -2000 -print

 

find / -nouser -print | more

find-nouser-print-more

find / -ungroup -print | more

sudo find / -type l -ls | more

 

08.09. LSOF

lsof  list open file

lsof

sudo lsof | more

COMMAND
PID
TID
USER
FD file descriptop
TYPE  type of  file
DEVICE
SIZE/OFF
NODE NAME

ps aux | grep syslog

sudo lsof /var/log/syslog
ps aux | grep <PID>

all the file under var log there are open

lsof +D /var/log

lsof -u root

lsof -u ubuntu | grep home

lsof -p 2258   useful for debuging

 

ps aux

lsof -p 2258

 

kill -9 ‘lsof -t -u username’   kill all process  where user id “username”  have open
09.01. Syslogd and Rsyslogd

cd /etc

ls | grep rsyslog

grep-rsyslog

 

every file is included

 

09.02. Using Logger To Add Entries To Log Files
logger

logger hello  will

tail messages

logger -s error message

logger-message

logger -t backupscript -s error message

 

-t  is for tag

 

logger -f /var

logger -t backupscript -i error while try to backup

logger-t-backupscript-s-error-message

 

09.03. Logrotate

logrotate

 

ls | grep logrotate
/etc

logrotate.conf
logrotate.d

var-log-httpd

 

10.03. Managing Linux Time Zones

cd /etc

ls -al | localtime

ls -al | grep localtime

localtime

to change timezone

date

rm /etc/localtime

cp New_York /etc/localtime

date

chenge back

ln -s /user/share/zoneinfo/Chicago

 

10.04. Network Time Protocol (NTP)

service ntp status

ntpq -p

service ntp status

ntpdate

ntpq -p

ntpq

 

11.01. LPD Legacy Interface

 

sudo apt-get install lpr

lpoptions-d Main

cd /etc/

more printcap

 

cd /etc/cups

lpstat -p

lpr -P PDF textfile.txt

cd /PDF

lpr-p-pdf-textfile

which lp

which lpr

lpoptions -d PDF

ps aux | grep cups

lpstat -d

11.02. CUPS Configuration and Tools

ps aux | grep cups

ps-aux-grep-cups

sudo apt-get install cups-pdf

cd /etc/cups   configuration and drivers for printers

cat cups-browsed.conf   – restrict Ip or networks to allow to browse or print

cat /etc/cups.conf   – port listening to

 

/var/spool/cups

lpq

12.04. iconv and date

date –rfc-3339=date

iconv

locale

locale

set | less

 

env | grep LC_ALL

locales

 

12.07. Localization – LANG

localization

 

13.01. ssh and known hosts

sudo apt-get install openssh-server

sudo /etc/init.d/ssh restart

/etc/init.d/sshd restart

ssh-restart

 

sshd-restart

ssh -l user@hostname

 

ssh -l user -v  host

ssh -l user -vv  host

ssh -l user -vvv  host

v verbose

 

known-hosts
13.02. sshkeygen.m4v

ssh suport 2 key

create DSE key

ssh-keygen

 

13.01. ssh and known hosts.

sudo apt-get install openssh-server

ssh -l user@hostname

ssh -l user -v  host

ssh -l user -vv  host

ssh -l user -vvv  host

v verbose

 

13.03. ssh-copy-id and Key Types.m4v

ssh-keygen -t rsa
/home/sshuser/.ssh/id_rsa
enter passphrase
/home/sshuser/.ssh/id_rsa.pub

ssh-keygen-t-rsa

id_dsa
id_dsa.pub
id_rsa
id_rsa.pub
know_hosts

ssh-copy-id  sshuser@192.168.1.200

/.ssh/authorized_key

we can connect without pasword
ssh 192.168.1.200
enterpassphrase  /home/sshusere/.ssh/id_rsa

on remote host
2 files
authorized_keys
knows_hosts

rsa-and-dsa

 

13.03. ssh-copy-id and Key Types

ssh-copy-id sshuser@192.168.0.200

ssh-copy-id

 

remote host  has autorized_key

remote-host-has-autorized_key

 

13.04. ssh-agent and ssh-add

ssh-agent  – daemon run in background

evaluate ssh agent
eval ‘ssh-agent -s’

ps aux | grep ssh

eval-ssh-agent-s

 

ssh-add

ssh-add

ssh-add -l

 

13.05. System RSA-DSA Keys

 

centos-ssh-folder

 

ubuntu-ssh-folder

cd .ssh
know_hosts
ssh-keygen -t dsa

ssk*-keygen -t rsa1

/home/sshuser/.ssh/id_dsa
enter passphrase

/.ssh  ll

id_dsa
id_dsa.pub
know_host
cat id_dsa.pub

 

13.06. PGP and GnuPGP Keys

sudo apt-get install gnupg

generate key

gpg –gen-key

gpg-gen-key

enter passphrase for gpg

now generat public key

 

cd .gnupg

gpg –export -a “name surname” > publick.key

now-generat-public-key

gpg –send-keys “realname” –keyserver hkp://subkey.pgp.net

gpg –import pubkey.txt

gpg –recv-keys email –keyserver hkp://subkeys.pgp.net

 

14.01. Host Security Passwd-Shadow-Nologin files

cat /etc/passwd

cat /etc/passwd | grep user

etc-passwd

 

sudo cat /etc/shadow | grep user

try to crack password with john

unshadow passwd shadow

unshadow-passwd-shadow

unshadow passwd shadow > combine.passwords

 

 

14.02. Host Security Init.d And Inittab file

determin the default runlevel system

/etc/inittab

ubuntu-inittab

ubuntu  non exist anymore

/etc/init.d/

cat x11-common

 

for Ubuntu

vim /etc/init/rc-sysinit.conf   <–

which init

which telinit

runlevel

ubuntu-telinit

telinit 1 single user mode non root comand

 

centos runlevel

centos-runlevel

 

14.03. Host Security  Inet.d And inetd.conf

inetd starting stoping services  -inetd responsible for starting services

cat  /etc/services

cat-etc-services

 

cat  /etc/services | grep ssh

ftp stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/ftpd ftpd   < –define ftp service run over TCP started by root user and name of the daemon

sudo service inetd

 

14.04. Host Security Xinet.d And xinetd.conf

 

centos

xinetd

xinetd

ps aux | grep xinet

rsync

centis-rsync

/etc/xinet.d/  service telnet

etc-xinet-d-service-telnet

 

telnet-centos

telnet moved and connection refuse

telnet-moved-and-connection-refuse

 

14.05. Host Security Hosts.allow and hosts.deny

 

host.allow and host.deny deprecate in favor of firewall   iptable ufw

host.allow is read before host.deny

 

cd /etc/

/etc/host.allow

etc-host-allow

ssh: LOCAL 192.168.1.195

 

/etc/host.deny

etc-host-deny

 

sudo service ssh restart

15.01. Understanding E-mail Basics

ps aux | grep postfix

yum install postfix

service postfix start

service postfix status

service-postfix-status

 

mail

cd /var/mail/

ls

mail-folder

cat user

mail()

send mail from command line

 

mail -s “This si the subject”  root  <ENTER>

type body of the email

CTRL+D  to send

 

 

cd /bin/

vi sendmail#!/bin/bashmail -s “Your script has completed thanks” < /root/bin/body.txt root

cd/root/bin
echo “this is the body of your email” > body.txt

chmod u+x sendmail
./senmail
tail -f /var/mail/root

read email from command line

read-email-from-command-line

mail -u root

& 4

r <–respond back

CTRL+D  send

& d   for delete

mailq

postqueue

postqueue -f

chkconfig –level 3 postfix on

cd /etc

 

vi aliases

.forward file

redirect email

forward-email-file

 

 

16.01. Working WIth Xorg.conf Configuration File

which aticonfig

cd /etc/X11/xorg,conf

lspci | grep VGA

 

xorg.conf

xorg-conf-monitor

 

16.02. Working With xhost

xhost

xhost

 

set | grep DISPLAY

export display to another system

export-display

xdpyinfo | grep display

xdpyinfo

ps aux | grep gdm

ps-aux-grep-gdm

and now connecting vnc :1.0

now-connecting-vnc-1-0

export DISPLAY=192.168.0.18:0.0

xterm

any command run here will display on remote desktop

remote-desktop

 

remote-centos-desktop

 

 

16.03. Using The xwininfo Utility

xwininfo-utility

 

xwininfo-with-output

xwininfo -children

xwininfo -root  -children

xwininfo -root  -tree

xwininfo -events

xwininfo -wm

xwininfo -root  -children -all

 

16.04. Using The xdpyinfo Utility

 

xdpyinfo

xdpyinfo | grep display

xdpyinfo | grep GLS

xdpyinfo | grep depth

 

16.05. X and startx

display manager  xdm, gdm, kdm

ps aux | grep X

which xdm

which gdm

which kdm

which lightdm

man-x

which X

which startx

which xinit

cat /usr/bin/startx

 

xinit

cd .xinitrc

cat /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc

xinit

 

./etc/X11/Xsession

 

16.06. Inittab and XWindows

 

inittab — default runlevel on the system

cat /etc/inittab

/etc/init

cat ufw.conf

cd /etc/init.d/

etc/init/rc-sysinit.conf

 

which telinit

runlevel

telinit

 

which xfs

 

/usr/share/

cd fonts

cd truetype/

 

pine tools -email